On December 16, 2016, the US Court of Appeals for the First Circuit issued an opinion in United States ex rel. Hagerty v. Cyberonics, Inc. (Case No. 16-1304) affirming the US District Court for the District of Massachusetts’ dismissal of a relator’s False Claims Act (FCA) claims for failure to plead the alleged fraudulent scheme with the level of particularity required by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 9(b).

The relator, a former sales representative of medical device manufacturer Cyberonics, Inc., alleged that his former employer had engaged in a scheme to overbill the government by encouraging unnecessary, untimely surgical procedures to prematurely replace batteries in patients’ Vagus Nerve Stimulator (VNS) devices. The relator alleged that while VNS devices, implanted to treat patients with refractory epilepsy, have battery lives of eight to nine years, Cyberonics adopted a sales strategy designed to result in battery replacements after four to five years.


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On November 8, 2016, the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit issued a decision in U.S. ex rel. Saldivar v. Fresenius Medical Care Holdings, Inc., remanding the case for entry of an order dismissing the case for lack of subject matter jurisdiction based on the False Claims Act’s (FCA) pre-2010 public disclosure bar.

We previously posted about the US District Court for the Northern District of Georgia’s October 30, 2015, decision granting Fresenius’ motion for summary judgment. As a reminder, relator Chester Saldivar alleged that Fresenius violated the FCA by billing the government for the “overfill” in medication vials, which is the extra medication included to facilitate the extraction of the amount labeled on the vial.

Fresenius maintained that the action should be dismissed for lack of subject matter jurisdiction due to the pre-2010 version of the public disclosure bar in the FCA, which prevents qui tam actions if the allegations in question were publicly disclosed and the relator is not an original source. The district court concluded that Saldivar’s allegations of overfill billing were publicly disclosed to the government in communications between Fresenius and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as well as publicly in a complaint in another matter. But, the district court held that Saldivar was an “original source” and not barred from bringing the action because of his experience in managing the inventory of the medication and his discussions with supervisors and coworkers about overfill use and billing.

On the merits of Saldivar’s allegations, the district court then held that Saldivar could not prove that Fresenius knew that billing for overfill was impermissible. On that basis, the district court granted Fresenius’ motion for summary judgment and Saldivar appealed.


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Fighting corporate fraud and other misconduct is a top priority of the Department of Justice. Our nation’s economy depends on effective enforcement of the civil and criminal laws that protect our financial system and, by extension, all our citizens. These are principles that the Department lives and breathes- as evidenced by the many attorneys, agents,

“Fighting corporate fraud and other misconduct is a top priority ofthe Department of Justice. Our nation’s economy depends on effective enforcement of the civil and criminal laws that protect our financial system and, by extension, all our citizens. These are principles that the Department lives and breathes- as evidenced by the many attorneys, agents, and

Imagine that you’re counsel to a company embroiled in a False Claims Act (FCA) case. Now imagine that your company is about to sign a settlement agreement ending that case after years of protracted discovery and motion battles with a relator or the government. You sigh in relief, right? But if that settlement includes a corporate integrity agreement (CIA), you should think twice about relaxing. A recent decision by the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania dampens the upsides of settling, as it turns out that a CIA can potentially expose a company to new FCA cases for alleged CIA violations.

In U.S. ex rel. Boise v. Cephalon, Inc. (July 21, 2015) (1 No. 08-287, 2015 WL 4461793)  the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania held that relators stated a claim under the 31 U.S.C. 3721(a)(1)(G)—otherwise known as the “reverse false claims” provision of the False Claims Act— based on alleged violations of a Corporate Integrity Agreement (CIA). In other words, just when Cephalon thought that it had a FCA matter behind it, a relator was able to advance a new action claiming that Cephalon hadn’t complied with the terms of the CIA. 
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Companies may think their documents are safe from disclosure based on confidentiality agreements with employees, but a recent decision in the Northern District of Illinois highlights the risk that courts will permit a relator to keep company documents after a False Claims Act (FCA) suit is filed — even potentially privileged documents — and not

Physicians who enter into compensation arrangements such as medical directorships must ensure that those arrangements reflect fair market value for bona fide services the physicians actually provide. Although many compensation arrangements are legitimate, a compensation arrangement may violate the anti-kickback statute if even one purpose of the arrangement is to compensate a physician for his