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Amandeep (Aman) S. Sidhu focuses his practice on complex commercial disputes with an emphasis on regulated industries, including health care-related investigations and litigation. He represents hospitals and health care companies in investigations and defense of qui tam whistleblower litigation involving federal False Claims Act (FCA), Stark Laws and Anti-Kickback Statute in federal district courts throughout the United States. Aman regularly supports settlement negotiations with the US Department of Justice for clients in multiple jurisdictions, including negotiation of corporate integrity agreements with the US Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General. Aman also represents health care and life sciences companies in the navigation of state and federal investigations, including responding to congressional inquiries. Aman serves on the Firm's Diversity/Inclusion Committee, Pro Bono and Community Service Committee and Associate Development Committee. Read Amandeep Sidhu's full bio.

On February 14, 2017, after nearly two years of appellate proceedings, the US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit declined to address the substance of an appeal related to the use of statistical sampling to prove liability in a False Claims Act (FCA) case in United States ex rel. Michaels, et al. v. Agape Senior Community, Inc., et al. (4th Cir., Case No 15-2145). In the same opinion, the appellate court affirmed the district court’s holding that the Attorney General has the power to veto settlements between relators and FCA defendants, even when the United States has elected not to intervene in the case.

We have been reporting on the developments in this high-profile FCA case as it has proceeded in the Fourth Circuit. From the Court’s acceptance of the appeal, to a summary of opening briefs, to amicus briefs filed by hospital trade associations, to the oral arguments last fall, we have keenly followed this case because of its potentially far-reaching implications for FCA defendants.
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Last week, a 2-1 split panel on the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit affirmed the lower court’s dismissal of U.S. ex rel. Harper, et al. v. Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District, Case No. 15-4406 (6th Cir. Nov. 21, 2016). The Sixth Circuit’s decision comes nearly eleven months after the US District Court, Northern District of Ohio dismissed the relators’ False Claims Act (FCA) complaint, which alleged reverse false claims arising from hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”) leases executed by the Muskingum Watershed Conservancy District (MWCD). In this case, the Sixth Circuit became the first appellate court to address the requisite mental state for the so-called “reverse false claims” theory of liability, 31 U.S.C. § 3729(a)(1)(G), under which a defendant is liable if it “knowingly conceals or knowingly and improperly avoids or decreases an obligation to pay or transmit money or property to the Government.”

The case involves a 1949 land grant from the United States to MWCD, a political subdivision of the state of Ohio responsible for developing reservoirs and dams to control flooding. The 1949 deed included a provision reverting the land to the United States if MWCD “alienated or attempted to alienate it, or if MWCD stopped using the land for recreation, conservation, or reservoir-development purposes.” Starting in 2011, MWCD began selling rights to conduct fracking on the land. Opposed to fracking, the three relators filed this FCA action based on a theory that the 1949 deed’s reversion clause was triggered by MWCD’s sale of fracking rights, thereby resulting in reverse false claims and conversion when MWCD “knowingly withholding United States property from the federal government.” The United States declined to intervene in the case.

The Sixth Circuit concluded that “knowingly” in the context of § 3729(a)(1)(G) applies “both the existence of a relevant obligation and the defendant’s own avoidance of that obligation.” In other words, to be liable, the defendant must have known it had (or have acted in deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of) an obligation to the United States and known that it was avoiding (or have acted in deliberate ignorance or reckless disregard of) that obligation.
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On October 5, 2016, the Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit remanded a “reverse” False Claims Act (FCA) case to the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania for further proceedings. The court’s decision in United States ex rel. Custom Fraud Investigations, LLC v. Victaulic Company, Case No. 15-2169 (3d Cir., Oct. 5, 2016), breathes new life into a case that was previously dismissed by the district court in September 2014, and provides extensive discussion about how reverse claims operate in the era of the 2009 Fraud Enforcement and Recovery Act (FERA) amendments.

The case involves nondiscretionary import regulations—set forth in the Tariff Act of 1930—that apply to the pipe fitting industry. These regulations mandate that pipe fittings manufactured outside the United States must be marked with the country of origin; in contrast, pipe fittings manufactured in the United States are typically unmarked. Failure to properly mark foreign-manufactured pipe fittings results in a 10 percent ad valorem that accrues from the time of importation. Furthermore, if improperly marked goods are discovered by customs officials, the importer has three options: (1) re-export the goods; (2) destroy the goods; or (3) mark them properly to be released for sale in the United States. Since customs officials largely rely on importers to self-report any duties that are owed at the time of import, it is possible for improperly marked pipe fittings to enter the United States’ stream of commerce. To the extent that improperly marked pipe fittings are discovered after they have entered the market, the 10 percent ad valorem is due immediately, retroactive to the date of importation.


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Each year, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Office of Inspector General (OIG) issues a Work Plan that summarizes new and ongoing OIG reviews and areas of focused attention for the coming year and beyond. The current Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Work Plan was issued in November 2015 and supplemented by a Mid-Year Update in April 2016. OIG considers work planning a “dynamic process” with adjustments made throughout the year to meet priorities and in response to new issues as necessary. Accordingly, the Work Plan provides health care providers and related entities with a “roadmap” of issues that are currently being addressed or will be addressed in the coming year by OIG. As we look towards OIG’s issuance of the FY 2017 Work Plan in a few months, we are revisiting OIG’s FY 2016 plans, projections, results and mid-year updates that reflect the trajectory of ongoing and future examinations and enforcement priorities.
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In late March, three major health care trade associations filed amicus briefs in support of the defendant-appellees in U.S. ex rel. Michaels v. Agape Senior Community, et al., Record No. 15-2145 (4th Cir.).  As we have previously reported, the relator in Agape is pursuing an interlocutory appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit regarding the use of statistical sampling to prove False Claims Act (FCA) liability.  In their respective briefs, the American Hospital Association (AHA), Catholic Health Association (CHA) and American Health Care Association (AHCA), did not mince words – a reversal of the District Court’s ruling that sampling cannot be used to prove FCA liability would have catastrophic consequences for the thousands of hospitals and health care providers throughout the United States.

In their joint brief, AHA and CHA noted that their member hospitals “submit thousands of claims to Medicare and Medicaid every day based on physicians’ medical judgments about patient conditions and courses of treatment.”  On behalf of its members, AHA and CHA affirmed that “statistical analyses are no substitute for the on-the-ground medical context a treating physician knows, understands, and relies upon in making treatment decisions for a given patient.” The crux of the AHA/CHA argument is as follows: if the government and relators want to benefit from the treble damages and statutory penalty provisions of the FCA, then they must accept the “essential safeguard against its abuse: each claim must be separately proved.”  The alternative, suggested AHA/CHA, is a “Trial by Formula” approach that was firmly rejected by the Supreme Court of the United States in Wal-Mart Stores v. Dukes, 131 S. Ct. 2541 (2011), and further explained just last month in Tyson Foods, Inc. v. Bouaphakeo, No. 14-1146 (Mar. 22, 2016).  With the majority of FCA qui tam cases being handled by relators directly—with limited oversight from a non-intervening United States—AHA/CHA argue that allowing statistical sampling to prove FCA liability would “shortcut” a physician’s clinical judgment.  Moreover, they observe that “[p]erversely, the bigger the relator’s allegations, the lower his burden of proof would become; the result would be more health care providers forced into costly defense of meritless FCA suits and more in terrorem settlements,” diverting resources from patient care and increasing health care costs for everyone.


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As we previously reported in October 2015, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit is considering an interlocutory appeal regarding the use of statistical sampling to prove liability under the False Claims Act (FCA).  The Fourth Circuit’s resolution of this case, U.S. ex rel. Michaels v. Agape Senior Community, et al., Record

On October 29, 2015, the United States announced a $125 million settlement with a subsidiary of pharmaceutical manufacturer Warner Chilcott to resolve a sealed qui tam in United States ex rel. Alexander, et al. v. Warner Chilcott plc, et al., Civil Action No. 11-CA-1121 (D. Mass.). The global settlement consisted of $22.9 million in

On September 9, 2015, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) released a memorandum to prosecutors nationwide regarding “Individual Accountability for Corporate Wrongdoing,” authored by Deputy Attorney General Sally Q. Yates.  Dubbed the “Yates Memorandum,” this missive consolidates both long-standing DOJ policy and newly minted guidance for prosecutors and civil enforcement attorneys that could significantly alter

The Southern District of New York recently ruled in Amarin Pharma, Inc. et al. v. Food and Drug Administration, et al. that a drug company may engage in “truthful and non-misleading speech” about off-label uses of an approved drug without the threat of a misbranding action under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. No.